Description of Niger

Niger is a country located in Western Africa. Niger also called as the Republic Of Niger, was named after the Niger River. Niamey is the capital city of Niger. Niger is a landlord country. A landlord country is a country in which water bodies lie only along its coast line, it is enclosed by lands only. The Sahara Desert covers about 80% of Niger's lands. Niger is one of the developing countries in Africa. Mahamadou Issoufou has been President of Niger since 7 April 2011.


The largest hot desert, Sahara covers a major part of Niger now. But historic evidence strongly show that Sahara was Green Sahara thousands of years ago. Five thousand years ago,  the climate in Niger favored human settlement, agriculture and herding. Due to change in climate, habitual lands were gradually transformed into deserts in Niger. This forced the people to relocate to south and south-east. 

Before colonial rule, Niger was a place for trade between Sub-Saharan Africa and North Africa, Europe, etc. Agadez, the central city of Niger, was a polar place for this trade. In Africa, during this epoch, various empires and kingdoms also prospered up to the beginning of colonization. Songhai, House, Mali, Kanem-Bornu kingdoms ruled Niger before the nineteenth century. After that French colonies conquered Niger. French authority abolished slavery in The Nile. The Nigerien Progressive Party was found in 1946. Under this party's rule, a severe movement began due to which Nigerien people got national independence. Many African movements confederated and thus resulted in equality between the African citizens and the French citizens. In 1958, Niger became a sovereign state and then the Republic of Niger was officially established. Diori Hamani was the head of the Counsel of Ministers of the Republic of Niger. In 1960, Niger left the French Community. Diori Hamani was its first president.

Maps and Language

Niger, a landlord country is located between the Sahara and Sub-Saharan regions. Niger's area is 1,267,000 square kilometres. It borders Nigeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Algeria Libya, Chad. The lowest point being the Niger River, with an elevation of 200 meters. The highest point being the Mont Idoukal-n-Taghes located in the Air Mountains with an elevation of 2,022 meters.

French is the official language in Niger. As there are many ethnic groups in Niger, there are other languages also. Depending upon the region they live, people speak a different language. Most of the educated people in Niger speak French.

Culture and Holidays

Four distinct cultures dominated Nigerians before colonial rule. Those cultures together, now widely define Nigerian Culture. Governments tried to form a shared national culture but this idea is still in the process because the major Nigerien communities have their own cultures. The Islamic population is mostly agglomerated in south and west of the country. Nigerians deal with serious challenges like lack of development due to its landlocked position, desert lands, illiteracy and poverty, lack of infrastructure and environmental degradation.

The Government in Niger declared twelve official public holidays. These include international commemorations and religious holidays. The official holidays in Niger are January 1, New Year's Day; April 24, Concord Day; May 1, Laboua Day; August 3, Nigerien Independence Day; December 18, Nigerien Republic Day; December 25, Christmas Day. People in Niger also celebrate few other holidays which are not public holidays.

Climate and Weather

The lands of Niger are predominantly covered by deserts. Niger's subtropical climate is very hot and dry. It is one of the hottest countries in the world. On the edges of the Niger River basin in the extreme south of Niger, there is a tropical climate. The three main climatic zones in Niger are the Sahara Desert climatic region, the Sahel region and the Sudan.

Travelling and tourism

The country, Niger is rich in its natural beauty. This made it a perfect place for ecotourism. Niger has rain forests, waterfalls and many other natural attractions. Niger has been able to attract the tourists for the past few years. Along the Niger River, there are national parks such as the W National Park. The main aim of these parks is to protect the endangered wildlife of Western Africa. Hunting and poaching are crimes in Niger. There are vast areas in Niger, which could easily be used for safari tourism, with animals such as lions, elephants and giraffes. West African lion is one of the rare species found in the Nature parks in Niger.

Tourists are largely attracted to Nigerian events, as the country has many ethnic groups. Cultural celebrations like  Guerewol Festival, La Cure Salee attract the tourists.

Vacations and Destinations

Niger has so many tourist attractions. There are many waterfalls, forests, national parks, national nature reserves. Agadez Grande Mosque, Birni quarter, Grand Marche, The Old Quarter, Sultans Palace, Niamey Grand Mosque, National Museum of Niger, Residence of Heinrich Barth, W National Park, Niger Sahara, Air mountains, Tenere deserts are the destinations which serve as tourist attractions in Niger.


Boko Haram, a jihadist group, based in northeastern Nigeria is active in Chad, Niger also. The group is led by Abubakar Shekau. ON 18th June, 2016   Boko Haram fighters have killed at least 38 people in the southeast of  Niger, with most of the victims women and children. 

Some facts about Niger

Population of country 15,878,271 people
Area of Niger 1,267,000 sq. kilometers
Located on the continent Africa (AF)
Capital of Niger Niamey
Currency at Niger Franc (XOF)
Domain Zone .ne
Phone country code 227
FIPS code of Niger NG

Gallery of Niger


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Niger video guide

More information about Niger

Climate of Niger:
  • desert
  • mostly hot, dry, dusty
  • tropical in extreme south
Terrain of Niger:
  • predominately desert plains and sand dunes
  • flat to rolling plains in south
  • hills in north
Niger also has such useful resources as: uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, molybdenum, gypsum, salt, petroleum.

Top cities of Niger

City Name Population State Coordinates
1 Niamey 774,235 people Niamey 13.5125 x 2.11178
2 Zinder 191,424 people Zinder 13.80487 x 8.98837
3 Maradi 163,487 people Maradi 13.5 x 7.10174
4 Alaghsas 88,561 people Agadez 17.0187 x 8.0168
5 Tahoua 80,425 people Tahoua 14.8888 x 5.2692
6 Dosso 49,750 people Dosso 13.049 x 3.1937
7 Birni N Konni 48,103 people Tahoua 13.79562 x 5.2553
8 Tessaoua 35,775 people Zinder 13.75737 x 7.9874
9 Gaya 33,051 people Dosso 11.88435 x 3.44919
10 Dogondoutchi 31,767 people Dosso 13.63933 x 4.02875
11 Diffa 27,948 people Diffa 13.31536 x 12.61134
12 Ayorou 26,290 people Tillaberi 14.73075 x 0.91738
13 Madaoua 24,804 people Tahoua 14.073 x 5.96
14 Mayahi 22,183 people Zinder 13.95532 x 7.67122
15 Tera 21,095 people Tillaberi 14.00776 x 0.75306
16 Mirya 20,724 people Zinder 13.70727 x 9.15013
17 Tibiri 20,019 people Maradi 13.56271 x 7.04848
18 Dakoro 19,798 people Maradi 14.51056 x 6.765
19 Magaria 19,419 people Zinder 12.99826 x 8.90991
20 Tillaberi 19,262 people Tillaberi 14.21167 x 1.45306
21 Nguigmi 17,897 people Diffa 14.24953 x 13.10921
22 Matamey 16,844 people Zinder 13.42309 x 8.47485
23 Illela 16,678 people Tahoua 14.4605 x 5.2437
24 Tanout 15,204 people Zinder 14.97089 x 8.88786
25 Goure 14,639 people Zinder 13.9835 x 10.27035
26 Abalak 13,555 people Tahoua 15.4509 x 6.2793
27 Aguie 13,152 people Zinder 13.50601 x 7.77863
28 Filingue 11,677 people Tillaberi 14.3521 x 3.3168
29 Maine-Soroa 10,699 people Diffa 13.21139 x 12.0241
30 Say 10,387 people Tillaberi 13.1007 x 2.3689

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