Description of Chad

Chad is located in Sahel and shares borders with Nigeria, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Niger, and Libya.


For over 2000 years, the area of Chad has been lived in by an agricultural and sedentary people. The area became a sort of crossroads for different civilizations. The Sao were the earliest of these peoples. They are known from the oral histories and artifacts that have been found in the area. The Sao was taken over by the Kanem Empire, which were the first and the longest lasting of all the empires that were developed in the country. The power of the Kanem empire as well as the subsequent empires was based on controlling the trade routes through the Sahara. 

Colonial expansion from France led to the Territoire Militaire in the year 1900. By the year of 1920, France had control of the colony and had made it a part of Equatorial Africa. France viewed the area as unimportant and simply a source of raw cotton and untrained labor. 

During WWII, 15,000 soldiers from Chad fought to free the country from France. When the war was over they were granted overseas territory status and the people who lived there were provided the right to elect representatives to both a Chad assembly and the French National Assembly. The country was given its independence in August of 1960. Francois Tombalbaye was elected as the 1st president. He then banned other parties from running. In the year 1965 a civil war was started by Muslims. Tombalbaye was killed in 1975 and the insurgency continued. France’s position within the country was lost by the disintegration throughout the country. There was also a civil war where Libya unsuccessfully became involved. 

In 1990, a semblance of peace was restored and a democratic constitution was drafted. There were flawed elections held in both 1996 and again in 2001. There have been several rebel groups that have made attacks throughout the country. There was a coup in 2008 that rocked the capital. The government is still somewhat unstable.

Visiting Chad 

There are several places to see in Chad. The Zakouma National Park offers 44 large animal species as well as many types of birds. The Ennedi desert or Ennedi plateau is located in the north eastern part of the country and is one of the most inaccessible regions of the Sahara. It is difficult to travel to this area and dangerous because of the poverty in the country as well as a lack of tourist facilities, highway banditry, as well as the political unrest of the area. At one point the only people who could cross the area were nomadic caravans. It is now accessible using 4 by 4 vehicles. There are no roads in the area. 

There are many interesting sandstone formations in the area. Rock and natural arches are found throughout the country. The Aloba arch is quite spectacular as it reaches 120 meters. There are also many examples of rock paintings or petroglyphs found throughout the area. Many of the rock paintings represent animals that were some of the first inhabitants of the desert lands.

There are gueltas or desert ponds located in the southern part of the Ennedi. One of the more popular desert ponds is called the Guelta d’Archei and it is located near Fada. This lake is one of the major sources of water for the desert and it is often visited by people from the area. There are numerous camel trails leading to the pond. There are endemic Sahara crocodiles found near the lake that feed on the fish from the pond as well as the poop that is left by the camels that visit.

Eat, Drink, and Stay

Meat dishes are quite popular in the country and many people who travel to Chad compliment the dishes. Most food is eaten without using utensils. It is important to remember that Muslims will be offended if you eat with your left hand. Make sure that you only eat using your right hand if you are served by a Muslim. It is recommended that you drink bottled water or make sure that the water is boiled and clean before you drink it.

There are several affordable places to stay in N’Djamena. Be prepared to pay quite a bit to fly into the country though.

Travel Warning

There have been several issues of political and jihadist turmoil over the past several years. Since the year 2010, security has been improved. However, both the government of the United Kingdom and the United States advise against travelling to Chad. Travelling anywhere outside of N’Djamena is considered to be very dangerous, especially travel to the northern and the eastern parts of the country. To travel to these areas you will need special movement permits. There is a high level of violent crimes in the country and you should only travel to the country if it is extremely essential.

Some facts about Chad

Population of country 10,543,464 people
Area of Chad 1,284,000 sq. kilometers
Located on the continent Africa (AF)
Capital of Chad N'Djamena
Currency at Chad Franc (XAF)
Domain Zone .td
Phone country code 235
FIPS code of Chad CD

Gallery of Chad


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Chad video guide

More information about Chad

Climate of Chad:
  • tropical in south, desert in north
Terrain of Chad:
  • broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
Chad also has such useful resources as: petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt.

Top cities of Chad

City Name Population State Coordinates
1 N'Djamena 721,081 people Region du Chari-Baguirmi 12.11058 x 15.03479
2 Moundou 135,167 people Region du Logone Occidental 8.56667 x 16.08333
3 Sagh 102,528 people Region du Moyen-Chari 9.1429 x 18.3923
4 Abeche 74,188 people Region du Ouaddai 13.82916 x 20.8324
5 Kelo 42,533 people Region du Tandjile 9.30859 x 15.80658
6 Koumra 36,263 people Region du Mandoul 8.91256 x 17.55392
7 Pala 35,466 people Region du Mayo-Kebbi Ouest 9.3642 x 14.9046
8 Am Timan 28,885 people Region du Salamat 11.0297 x 20.2827
9 Bongor 27,770 people Region du Mayo-Kebbi Est 10.28056 x 15.37222
10 Mongo 27,763 people Region du Guera 12.18441 x 18.69303
11 Doba 24,336 people Region du Logone Oriental 8.65 x 16.85
12 Ati 24,074 people Region du Batha 13.2154 x 18.3353
13 Lai 19,382 people Region du Tandjile 9.3952 x 16.2989
14 Oum Hadjer 19,271 people Region du Batha 13.2954 x 19.6966
15 Bitkine 18,495 people Region du Guera 11.9801 x 18.2138
16 Mao 18,031 people Region du Kanem 14.12116 x 15.3103
17 Massaguet 17,906 people Region du Hadjer-Lamis 12.47554 x 15.43647
18 Dourbali 17,682 people Region du Chari-Baguirmi 11.80909 x 15.86323
19 Mboursou Lere 17,132 people Region du Mayo-Kebbi Ouest 9.7639 x 14.1539
20 Kyabe 16,177 people Region du Moyen-Chari 9.45149 x 18.94493
21 Benoy 15,717 people Region du Logone Occidental 8.98327 x 16.31991
22 Massakory 15,406 people Region du Hadjer-Lamis 12.996 x 15.72927
23 Moussoro 15,190 people Region du Barh el Gazel 13.64084 x 16.49007
24 Bokoro 14,723 people Region du Hadjer-Lamis 12.3807 x 17.0568
25 Bere 14,666 people Region du Tandjile 9.3202 x 16.1552
26 Bousso 13,555 people Region du Chari-Baguirmi 10.4795 x 16.7117
27 Largeau 13,400 people Region du Borkou 17.9257 x 19.10428
28 Bebedja 12,671 people Region du Logone Oriental 8.6761 x 16.566
29 Ngama 12,438 people Region du Chari-Baguirmi 11.78333 x 17.16667
30 Adre 11,928 people Region du Ouaddai 13.46667 x 22.2

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