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Madagascar

Description of Madagascar

Madagascar is the fourth largest island in the world after Greenland, New Guinea and Borneo, and is slightly larger than France. It is located in the western part of the Indian Ocean off the east coast of South Africa. Madagascar can be divided into five geographic regions: the East Coast, Tsaratanana massif in the north, the Central Highlands, the West Coast and the South one. The Central Highlands stretch along the entire length of the island and its height varies from 800 to 1800 m. The highest mountain is located in the area of Tsaratanana massif in the northern part of the island.

Madagascar is often called the "Great Red Island" because of its red soil, which is generally unsuitable for agriculture. Madagascar also has amazing limestone formations in the west and north. Known as scurvies, these formations are formed over the years under the influence of rain, leading to the erosion of the limestone base.

Madagascar for over 150 million years has been separated from Africa. Therefore, most of the plants and animals living on the island do not exist anywhere else in the world. Because of its remoteness, Madagascar was populated only 2000 years ago. Malagasies, as the people of this island are called, descended from Indonesians who crossed the Indian Ocean. Arabs and Africans arrived later and made an important contribution to a unique culture that has developed on the island.

After the period of domination of pirates on the east coast, Madagascar was colonized by the French in the late 19th century. Madagascar gained independence in 1960 and today is a democratic state.

About 75% of the species of Madagascar are endemic, which means that they do not exist anywhere else in the world. The island is home to the bizarre animals such as lemurs (from the group of primates), tendracs (like hedgehogs), brightly colored chameleons, puma-shaped fossas and many other creatures. Unfortunately, due to the destruction of their environment and hunting, today many unique animals of Madagascar are under the threat.

Some facts about Madagascar

Population of country 21,281,844 people
Area of Madagascar 587,040 sq. kilometers
Located on the continent Africa (AF)
Capital of Madagascar Antananarivo
Currency at Madagascar Ariary (MGA)
Domain Zone .mg
Phone country code 261
FIPS code of Madagascar MA

Gallery of Madagascar

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Madagascar video guide

More information about Madagascar

Climate of Madagascar:
  • tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
Terrain of Madagascar:
  • narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
Madagascar also has such useful resources as: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, rare earth elements, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower.

Top cities of Madagascar


City Name Population State Coordinates
1 Antananarivo 1,391,433 people Analamanga -18.91433 x 47.53098
2 Toamasina 206,373 people East -18.16667 x 49.38333
3 Fianarantsoa 167,227 people Upper Matsiatra -21.43333 x 47.08333
4 Mahajanga 154,657 people Boeny -15.71667 x 46.31667
5 Toliara 115,319 people South-West -23.35 x 43.66667
6 Antsiranana 82,937 people Diana -12.2787 x 49.29171
7 Antanifotsy 70,626 people -19.65 x 47.31667
8 Ambovombe 66,818 people -25.16667 x 46.08333
9 Amparafaravola 51,519 people -17.58333 x 48.21667
10 Fort Dauphin 45,141 people -25.03185 x 46.99874
11 Ambatondrazaka 43,134 people -17.83333 x 48.41667
12 Mananara Avaratra 41,209 people -16.16667 x 49.76667
13 Soavinandriana 40,453 people -19.16667 x 46.73333
14 Mahanoro 39,879 people -19.9 x 48.8
15 Soanierana Ivongo 39,271 people -16.91667 x 49.58333
16 Faratsiho 37,563 people -19.4 x 46.95
17 Nosy Varika 37,152 people -20.58333 x 48.53333
18 Vavatenina 36,916 people -17.46667 x 49.2
19 Morondava 36,803 people -20.28333 x 44.28333
20 Amboasary 36,082 people -25.03333 x 46.38333
21 Manakara 35,499 people -22.13333 x 48.01667
22 Antalaha 34,112 people -14.90033 x 50.27876
23 Ikongo 32,374 people -21.88333 x 47.43333
24 Manjakandriana 31,840 people -18.91667 x 47.8
25 Sambava 31,522 people -14.26667 x 50.16667
26 Fandriana 31,437 people -20.23333 x 47.38333
27 Marovoay 31,253 people -16.1 x 46.63333
28 Betioky 31,102 people -23.71667 x 44.38333
29 Ambanja 30,621 people -13.68333 x 48.45
30 Ambositra 30,353 people -20.51667 x 47.25

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