Description of Albania
Albania is located in the southeastern part of Europe. The country shares a northwest border with Montenegro, a northeast border with Kosovo, an eastern border with Macedonia, and a southern and southeastern border with Greece. On the west, Albania has an Adriatic Sea coast and on the southwest it borders the Ionian Sea. Albania is about 45 miles from the country of Italy, across from Strait of Otranto. This strait is the link between the Adriatic Sea and the Ionian Sea.
The country is a member of NATO, the UN, and the Organization of Security and Co-operation of Europe as well as the WTO, and the Council of Europe. The country has been a candidate for accession in the EU since the year 2003. Albania formally applied for membership to the European Union in April of 2009.
What is now the territory of Albania has been part of several Roman provinces through the years. The modern republic of Albania became independent when the Ottoman Empire collapsed after the Balkan Wars. The country declared its independence in the year 1912 and was recognized in 1913. It was a kingdom, republic and principality until Italy invaded the area in the year 1939. This formed Greater Albania that then became a protectorate for Nazi Germany in 1943. In the year 1944, the Socialist People’s Republic was created under the Party of Labor and the leadership is Enver Hoxha. In the year 1991, Republic of Albania was created after the socialist republic dissolved.
The country is a parliamentary democracy. In the year 2011, Tirana, which is the capital of the country, was the home to 421,286 people. The population of the country is 2,831,741. Tirana is the financial capital of the country as well. There have been several reforms to the free market, which has opened the country up for foreign investment. The country provides universal healthcare to all its citizens as well as free education at the primary and secondary level. The country has an upper middle class economy, with the dominate sector being the service industry. This is followed by industry and agriculture.
The Conference of London recognized Albania’s independence on the 29th of July, in the year 1913. However, the borders that were drawn were ignored by the demographics of the times. The monarchy of the area was short lived, lasting from 1914 through 1925. This was followed by a short lived Albanian Republic that lasted from 1925 through 1928. It was replaced by a monarchy from 1928 through 1939. During the Second World War the country was occupied by the Nazis.
Towards the end of WWII, the main political force and military of Albania was the communist party. They sent the army to the north in order to eliminate all of their rivals. The party was meant with resistance by Dukagjin, Nkiaj-Merur, and Kelmend. In 1945 on the 15th of January a battle at Tamara Bridge took place between the nationalist forces and the first Brigade. The nationalist forces were defeated. During this battle there were about 150 Kelmendi people who were cruelly tortured or killed.
Albania became a communist state after it was liberated from the Nazi’s. Albania underwent a socialist reconstruction immediately after the monarchy was annulled. In the year 1947, the first railway line in the country was completed and the second one was finished 8 months later. There were new land reform laws passed that granted the land to peasants and workers that tilled it. Production of agriculture increased significantly, which led to the country becoming self-sufficient. By the year 1955 illiteracy was eliminated among the adult population of the country.
Albania started to become industrialized during this time and the economy grew rapidly. There was also progress in health and education. The average income was 29% higher than the rest of the world average. In addition, the country did not tax its people as it was a monopolized socialist economy.
In 1991/1992, the people’s republic was dissolved. There were reforms made to the communist government in the year 1990 and the Republic was founded. In the elections of 1991, the communists maintained a stronghold in parliament. However, in 1992, liberalization of the policies that resulted in a collapsing economy along with social unrest, led to the Democratic party taking control. In the late part of 1996, the economic crisis spread after several Ponzi schemes failed that were operated in the country. The Kosovo war affected the country in the year 1999, when many refugees escaped to Albania for safety. The country became a full NATO member in 2009 and has submitted an application to become a part of the European Union.
There are several things to see and do while in Albania. Most of the roads are paved, but are extremely windy. The coastline is always a great place to visit as it offers clear seas of turquoise and many islands. The coastline that stretches to the north located in Vlore all the way to the Montenegrin border is very flat and offers sandy beaches. This is one of the top tourist destinations of the country. The Dajti Mountain is another popular site that is located in Tirana and allows you to see the entire green view of the city.
There are several castles located in several cities throughout the country. The beauty will remind you of the ancient times of the country and the world. The Petrela Castle is located near Tirana, the Rozafa castle is located in Shkodra, and the castle in Berat is inhabited. Skanderbeg Castle is located in Kruje and is named after a national hero. The castle is now a museum that holds his belongings.
Palasa is located near Himara and offers a gorgeous village that has amazing nature and wonderful beaches. This is where Julius Caesar rested during the pursuit of Pompey. There are not any resorts for tourists, but there are apartments located at local cafes that you may stay in on your visit.
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